noviakl10jambi

Februari 16, 2012

WASTE MANAGEMENT

Filed under: Uncategorized — noviakl10jambi @ 8:13 am

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1  Background

Trash is a problem faced by almost all countries in the world. Not only in developing countries, but also in developed countries, waste is always a problem. The average daily big cities in Indonesia to generate tens of tons of garbage. The waste was transported by special trucks and dumped or stacked away in a place that has been provided without a right old pickle again. From day to day garbage was piling up and there was garbage hill as we often see.

Trash is piling up, it will certainly disturb the surrounding residents. In addition to an unpleasant smell, garbage is often flies. And it can also bring about disease outbreaks. Although proven to be detrimental to trash it, but there are side benefits. This is because in addition can be disastrous for communities, waste can also be converted into useful items. Usefulness of this garbage is not separated from the use of science and technology in the handle.

1.2  PURPOSE

  1. To determine the types of waste
  2. To add insight and knowledge about waste
  3. To find out how to process waste

CHAPTER II
DISCUSSION

2.1   Definition of Organic Waste

Organic garbage is an item that is considered obsolete and discarded by the owner / user before, but it can still be used if managed with proper procedure. Organic is a robust process and is relatively fast, then the sign of what we have to declare that the staples of life, call it organic molecules, and planets similar, there is also somewhere in the universe? once again some new findings provide a sense of optimism that is quite important. Organic waste is waste that can be experienced weathering (decomposition) and the material breaks down into smaller and has no smell (often referred to as compost).

Compost is the result of weathering of organic matter such as leaves, straw, weeds, trash, grass, and other similar materials which pelapukannya process is accelerated by human assistance. Waste market niches such as vegetables, fruit markets, or the fish market, a relatively uniform type, the majority (95%) of organic waste, making them easier to handle. Waste originating from the settlements are generally very diverse, but generally at least 75% consists of organic and inorganic rest.

2.2   Types of Organic Waste

Organic waste derived from living beings, whether human, animal or plants, organic waste itself is divided into:

–          Wet organic waste. The term is meant wet organic waste bin has a fairly high water content. Examples of fruit skin and the rest of the vegetables.

–          Organic waste dry. While organic waste materials including organic materials dry is another small water content. Examples of dry organic waste include paper, wood or tree branches, and foliage dry.

2.3   Principles of Treatment

These are principles that can be applied in the processing of waste. These principles are known as 3 R and 1 C, namely:

–          Reduce, As much as possible to minimize the goods or materials that we use. The more we use the material, the more waste produced.

–          Reuse, Wherever possible choose items that can be used again. Avoid the use of goods disposable, throw.

–          Recycling, Wherever possible, goods that are not useful recycled again. Not all items can be recycled, but it’s been a lot of unofficial industrial (English: informal) and the industries that utilize household waste into other goods.

–          Changing, Researching the goods we use everyday. Replace items that can only be used once with a more durable goods.

2.4   Waste

Alternative Waste Management

To handle the garbage problem as a whole needs to be alternatives to management. Landfill is not a suitable alternative, because the landfill is unsustainable and cause environmental problems. In fact, these alternatives should be able to handle all the waste disposal problem by recycling all waste dumped back into society or to the natural economy, so as to reduce pressure on natural resources. To achieve this, there are three assumptions in the waste management should be replaced by three new principles. Rather than assuming that society will produce ever-increasing amount of waste, waste minimization should be a priority.

Waste disposed must be sorted, so that each part can be composted or recycled in an optimal, rather than dumped into the sewage system is mixed as it is today. And industries must redesign their products to facilitate the process of recycling the product. This principle applies to all kinds and waste flow.

Disposal of mixed waste that undermine and reduce the value of the material that may still be used again. Organic materials can contaminate / pollute the materials may still be in the recycling and toxins can destroy the usefulness of both. In addition, an increasing portion of the flow of waste derived from synthetic products and the products are not designed to be easily recycled; need to be redesigned to fit the system of recycling or elimination of the use stage.

Municipal solid waste programs must be adapted to local conditions to succeed, and may not be the same as other cities. Especially programs in developing countries should not simply follow the pattern of courses that have been successfully carried out in developed countries, given the differences in physical conditions, economics, law and culture. Particularly the informal sector (garbage collectors or scavengers) is an important component in the waste handling system that exists today, and increase their performance should be a major component in the waste handling systems in developing countries. One successful example is the zabbaleen in Cairo, which has successfully created a system of collecting and recycling waste that is able to change / use 85 percent of collected waste and employs 40,000 people.

In general, in the North or the South countries, systems for handling organic waste is the most important components of a system for handling municipal solid waste. Organic waste should be used as compost, vermi-composting (composting with worms) or used as fodder to restore nutirisi-nutrients to the soil. This ensures that the materials that can still be recycled are not contaminated, which is also the key of an alternative economic use of waste. Recycling waste creates more jobs per ton of waste than with other activities, and generate a stream of material that can supply the industry.

Decomposition process occurs through a process of recycling nutrients naturally. Nutrient contained in the materials or organic objects that have died, with the help of microbes (microorganisms), such as bacteria and fungi, will break down into simpler nutrients with the help of humans, the end product is compost (compost).

Any organic materials, biological materials that have died, will undergo a process of decomposition or weathering. The leaves that fall to the ground, broken stems or twigs, animal carcasses, animal waste, food scraps, etc., all will experience the process of decomposition and then crumble to the ground like a brown-blackish. His form was originally not recognized anymore. Decomposition process occurs through a process of recycling nutrients naturally. Nutrient contained in the materials or organic objects that have died, with the help of microbes (microorganisms), such as bacteria and fungi, will break down into simpler nutrients with the help of humans, the end product is compost (compost).

Composting is defined as a biochemical process that involves microorganisms as agents (intermediaries) which break down organic material into a material similar to humus. The results of these reforms is called compost. Compost is usually used as fertilizer and soil.
Compost and composting (composting) has been known since centuries ago. Various sources note that the use of compost as a fertilizer has been started since 1000 years before Moses. Noted also that in the days of imperial China and the Kingdom of Babylon, compost and composting technology has developed rapidly.

However, technological developments have created dependence on the agricultural industry of artificial chemical fertilizer factory that makes people forget the compost. Though composting has other advantages that can not be replaced by chemical fertilizers, compost able to: • Reduce the concentration and density of the soil so as to facilitate the development of roots and its ability to absorb nutrients. • Improve the ability of the soil in the binding of water so the soil can hold more water and prevent dryness ama on the ground. • Keeping soil erosion, thereby reducing nutrient leaching. • Creating appropriate conditions for the growth of the bodies of the inhabitants of the land such as worms and soil microbes are very useful for soil fertility.

2.5   Advantages of Organic Waste Processing

Here are some of the benefits of composting household waste using:

–          Able to provide organic fertilizer is cheap and environmentally friendly.

–          Reduce organic waste piles scattered around the residence.

–          Helps waste management early and quickly.

–          Saves cost of transporting waste to landfills (TPA).

–          Reduces need for landfill final land (TPA).

–          Saving the environment from damage and disturbance of smell, gutter jams, floods, landslides, and diseases transmitted by insects and rodents.

2.6   Disadvantages of Organic Waste Processing

After becoming compost, fertilizer is ready to be used as soil fertilizer. As for the lack of compost is relatively long absorbed nutrients plants, making long, and difficult to fabricate on a large scale. Therefore, to support the improvement of agricultural products needed artificial fertilizers.

CHAPTER III
CLOSING

3.1   Conclusion

Waste is an unwanted waste material after the end of a process. Trash is a concept of man-made, in the processes of nature there is no waste, only products that are not moving.
Trash can be at any phase of matter: solid, liquid, or gas. When released in two phases of the latter, especially gas, can be regarded as waste emissions. Commonly associated with pollution emissions.

3.2   Advice

How to control waste of the simplest is to raise awareness of the self to not damage the environment with garbage. Also needed are also social and cultural controls to better appreciate the environment, although sometimes be faced with a particular myth. Strict regulations of the government is also desirable because if not then the destroyers will continue to undermine the environmental resources.

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